The fight against poverty is the foundation stone of any system of social protection anywhere in the world. Structural trends, such as the rise of work insecurity and the decline of the nuclear family, have caused poverty to increase. Moreover, recent upheavals, including the Eurozone and the refugee crises, have put European social safety nets under further stress. In Italy, the creation of a ‘Poverty Alliance’ (an advocacy coalition of local governments, labour unions, faith groups, and other non-governmental organizations) has placed poverty more firmly on the agenda, and has proved instrumental in the introduction of a minimum income programme (Reddito d’inclusione – Rei) from 1 December 2017. LPS researchers have published extensively on poverty in Italy and in the rest of Europe, and are currently involved in research on child poverty, social assistance, and other similar topics, including extreme poverty in Greece during the crisis, and minimum incomes in Southern and Eastern Europe.